yield and quality traits

Plant height gene Rht25

The dwarfing alleles of genes that regulate plant height were essential for the success of the "Green Revolution" because they induced plants with reduced height even with a higher input of fertilizers. Many modern wheat cultivars carry semi-dominant dwarfing alleles at the Reduced height (Rht) loci on chromosome arms 4BS (Rht-B1) and 4DS (Rht-D1). These variants are known as gibberellic acid (GA) insensitive alleles because they encode repressors of the GA signaling pathway of growth promotion.

Amylose (resistant starch) content

Contributed by Wenjun Zhang and Jorge Dubcovsky

Financial support for marker and germplasm development: FFAR grant CA19-SS-0000000045  

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity

Submitted by: Adam Heesacker. Co-Authors: Dr. Robert Zemetra and Hilary Gunn

PPO Null Markers

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity is a main factor in the darkening of unfermented wheat flour dough.  The presence of active PPO leads to the discoloration through the formation of o-quinones (1,2), causing the formation of dark pigments and ultimately leading to perceived quality loss.

Gluten strength

Contributed by Laura Pfluger (pfluger.laura@inta.gob.ar)

The quality of wheat flour for bread making depends on the viscoelastic properties of the dough, which are influenced by the quantity and quality of the gluten-forming storage proteins of the endosperm.

Grain texture

Contributed by Gabriela Tranquilli (tranquilli.gabriela@inta.gob.ar)

Wheat marketing systems established a primary classification of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) based on endosperm texture, i.e. the hardness or softness of the grain, because this trait determines many of its potential end-uses. Hard textured grains require more grinding energy than soft textured grains to reduce endosperm into flour, and during this milling process a larger number of starch granules become physically damaged.